Born: Nov. 23, 1221, Toledo, Spain
Died: April 4, 1284, Seville, Spain
Alfonso X, King of Castille, Leon, and Galicia, was appropriately nicknamed “El Sabio” (the Wise). His 32-year reign in Spain was a time of artistic and intellectual advances, in an atmosphere of religious tolerance and cooperation. Here are a four reasons why this wise King of Medieval Spain was a Renaissance man ahead of his time:
1. As a poet and musician, Alfonso contributed to the poetry, music, notation, and codification of the beautiful Cantigas de Santa Maria (“Canticles of Holy Mary”). No minor achievement, this was one of the largest collections of monophonic solo songs of the Middle Ages. 430 poems, written in the lyrical language of Galician-Portuguese, were notated with music, encompassing elements of secular as well as religious music. The Cantigas included the miracles of Mary, hymns, folklore, and Marian festivities, which helped humanize the Holy Mother and engender a moral code of ethics.
Hear Alfonso’s Cantiga “Porque Trobar”:
2. As an intellectual, Alfonso established Castilian as the vernacular language of learning, replacing Latin. A shared language contributed to scientific and cultural advances during his reign, where Christian, Jewish, and Islamic scholars cooperated in an atmosphere of religious tolerance.
3. As a scientist, Alfonso encouraged astronomy. He established the Toledo School of Translators to translate the latest works of Islamic astronomy, which led to the creation of the Alphonsine Table of astronomical data. His love of astronomy and discovery were immortalized when a crater on the moon was named for him.
4. As a lawgiver, Alfonso was the author of the Royal Code of laws, Europe’s most advanced code of laws at that time, and was the originator of Spanish jurisprudence. For these achievements, he is honored as one of history’s 23 Lawgivers who are honored with marble medallions in the U.S. House of Representatives.
5. As a lover of games, he had The Book of Games translated from Arabic into Castilian. He also wrote one of the first Western treatises on the game of Chess.